Sunday, May 24, 2020
During the post World War I era, many European countries were rebuilding, and the Soviet Union saw this as a chance to catch up. The Soviet Union, under Joseph StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, implemented the five-year plan as strategy for rapid industrialization (Hunt, 846). A great example of StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s five-year plan was the construction of Magnitogorsk, a city based around a massive factory. This construction flawlessly captured StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s goals for progression, efficiency, and conquering nature (back cover). The novel Time, Forward! took place in 1932 and described, in detail, the construction of Magnitogorsk. This novel hinted at the spirit of the times. In the novel, one of the engineers, Margulies, decided to push concrete pouring to its limits. HisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Crew leaders would create ways to be more effective, so their crew would not be known as the least efficient crew. The leader of the bicycle crew, Ishchenko, and the leader of the tortoise crew, Khanu mov, came up with ways to increase efficiency later in the novel. IshchenkoÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of laying planks for faster cement transport, and KhanumovÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of automating the addition of water and cement to the mixer both increased the cement production (201, 269). Efficiency was an important factor to the spirit of the times because without it, The Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s progress towards industrialization would be hindered. Lastly, the Soviet Union wanted to show its strength by conquering nature. In the novel, an American tourist said he believed nature conquers technique, but the Soviet, Nalbandov, said it would not always be like this. The novel used an airplane as an example, for it could not conquer the speed of sound. The Soviet believed that soon technique would overcome nature, and the plane would exceed the speed of sound (158). This showed the differing opinions on the spirit of the times. It depicted Americans as being more conservative and content with their positi on in the world, and depicted the Soviets as more progressive thinkers. The novel also portrayed that Soviets believed anything could be accomplished, and they would soon create ways to overcome natureÃ¢â¬â¢sShow MoreRelatedSoviet Union Demonstrated Stunning Industrial Growth1895 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesproduction and technology. Lenin had fostered a dream of having the entirety of Russia lit up by electricity and modern means of communication in ten years. However, this was not just a dream of an advanced society: Lenin was sure that without this lurch forward to meet and contend with the competition of other countries, they would not last, and this was echoed by Stalin when he came into power; Ã¢â¬Å"We are fifty of a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this lag in ten years. EitherRead MoreStalins Five Year Plans Made Ussr Stronger. Agree or Disagree1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfive-year (1928-32) plan focused solely on advancing heavy industry through pr ojects like Magnitogorsk and advancing the production of coal, steel and timber. It would achieve this through the Gosplan (the State Planning Committee) who were set up in 1921 as a forecasting agency to work out things like output and input figures for industries and their targets. At this time propaganda was used to drive soviet citizens forward and peasants were recruited as workers, this was ineffective as peasants were uneducatedRead MoreRussia After The End Of World War I And The Russian Civil War1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhich increased a need for faster industrialization. Vladimir Lenin, created a plan called the New Economic Policy, which was a plan to help rebuild the Russian economy, focusing more agrigculturally rather than industrially, over a longer period of time. After Lenin died, Joseph Stalin rose to power and created a demand on faster industrialization. In 1928, Joseph Stalin created a plan that would change Russian industrialization for the better. This plan was called the Five Year Plan. The plan focusedRead MoreHow Did Lenin and Stalin Transform He Society and Economy of the Ussr?1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReluctantly Lenin agreed to seek international aid and relieve the situation. The only success of the War Communism policy was that it helped Russia win the war by ensuring the soldiers were fed. Ã¢â¬ËWe will take one step backward in order to take two steps forwardÃ¢â¬â¢, this is how Lenin justified his New Economic Policy. Growing social discontent culminating in the naval strike at Kronstadt proved to Lenin that if the Communist regime was to survive he would have to get the peasants on his side. He allowed someRead MoreCompare and contrast the economic policies of Lenin and Stalin and evaluate their success.1782 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesstate kept control of the heavy industries. Lenin saw the NEP as a short-term fix which meant a step backwards in the development of communism but one which would restore the economy. Once this had happened, the country could take the two steps forwards to achieve a communist state. The success of the NEP was a double-edged sword. On the one hand, the NEP had revived the economy, increased foreign trade and also electrified the country which was seen as a great success. On the other hand the NEPRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"Doubt Is the Key to Knowled geÃ¢â¬ (Persian Proverb). to What Extent Is This True in Two Areas of Knowledge?1804 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesknowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Persian Proverb). To what extent is this true in two areas of knowledge? As a Persian proverb once said to have progress in knowledge it is necessary to doubt. In other words, when we begin to doubt what we believed was true, we move forward to better knowledge making a further step to Absolute Truth. To what extent is doubt involved into the process of gaining knowledge? What is the function of doubt? To what extent is doubt either an engine or a brake to the progress in different areasRead MoreNucor Competitive Strategy4178 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pages The industry does well during economic expansion and suffers losses and even bankruptcies during economic downturn. 2.1.3. Sociocultural. The industry became a source of employment, symbolizes American economic power and pride during good times and symbolizes economic decline and source of shame when foreign companies took over market shares5. 2.1.4. Technological. Technology drives major changes in the production process to increase flexibility, efficiencies and allowed automation whichRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagescase can be made for viewing the decades of the global scramble for colonies after 1870 as a predictable culmination of the long nineteenth century, which was ushered in by the industrial and political revolutions of the late 1700s. But at the same time, without serious attention to the processes and misguided policies that led to decades of agrarian and industrial depression from the late 1860s to the 1890s, as well as the social tensions and political rivalries that generated and were in turn
Monday, May 18, 2020
The Spanish verb caer usually carries the idea of to fall and can be used in a variety of situations. While many of its uses can be translated using the English verb fall, a few cannot. Using Caer for Ã¢â¬ËTo FallÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËTo Fall OverÃ¢â¬â¢ Here are some examples of everyday usage where caer is straightforwardly used for to fall or to fall over: El aviÃ ³n cayÃ ³ en el ocÃ ©ano. (The plane fell into the ocean.)Si del cielo te caen limones, aprende a hacer limonada. (If lemons fall to you from the sky, learn to make lemonade.)Los barcos cayeron por las cataratas del NiÃ ¡gara. (The boats dropped over Niagara Falls.)El joven sufriÃ ³ un grave accidente al caer desde el tejado de la fÃ ¡brica. (The youth had a serious accident when he fell from the factorys roof.)El coche cayÃ ³ por el barranco por causas que se desconocen. (The car fell over the cliff for unknown reasons.)El tanque se cayÃ ³ de un puente. (The tank fell off a bridge.) The same meaning can be applied figuratively: Exportaciones colombianas cayeron en 18,7 por ciento. (Colombian exports fell 18.7 percent.)El turismo en Bolivia cayÃ ³ por la gripe. (Bolivian tourism declined because of the flu.) Caer can also be used when speaking of weather: Las lluvias fuertes y prolongadas cayeron sobre Cuenca. (The strong and long-lasting rains fell onÃ Cuenca.)La extraordinaria belleza de la nieve que caÃ a le provocaba mÃ ¡s alegrÃ a. (The extraordinary beauty of the snow that fell made him more joyful.)Rompiendo un record, la temperatura cayÃ ³ 43 grados en tan solo una semana. (Breaking a record, the temperature fell 43 degrees in only a week.)Ã Depending on the context, a synonym for fall can provide a better translation: Algunas estructuras cayeron tras el fuerte sismo de esta madrugada. (Some structures collapsed after the strong earthquake this morning.)El mercado de valores cayÃ ³ debido a una combinaciÃ ³n de pÃ ¡nico y venta programada. (The stock market collapsed due to a combination of panic and programmed selling.)La niÃ ±a se cayÃ ³ en el hielo. (The girl slipped on the ice.) Using Caer for Ã¢â¬ËTo SuccumbÃ¢â¬â¢ Caer is frequently used to indicate the idea of succumbing or being overtaken by a force of some sort, or to fall into an error. The translation can vary with the context. La cantante confesÃ ³ que cayÃ ³ en la anorexia y la bulimia. (The singer admitted that she sank into anorexia and bulimia.)CaÃ en la tentaciÃ ³n de ser infiel. (I succumbed to the temptation of being unfaithful.)El hombre cayÃ ³ en la trampa del FBI. (The man fell into the FBIs trap.)No caigas en el error de prometer lo que no puedes conseguir. (Dont make the mistake of making promises you cannot keep.)ParÃ s cayÃ ³ bajo los tanques nazis. (Paris fell to the Nazi tanks.)Tras padecer un cÃ ¡ncer, caÃ en depresiÃ ³n. (After suffering from cancer, I fell into depression.) Using Caer With Dates Caer can be used to mean that something falls on a particular date. It is used mostly commonly with days of the week. Este aÃ ±o mi cumpleaÃ ±os cae en jueves. (This year my birthday falls on a Thursday.)Si el dÃ a 30 de abril cae en domingo la fiesta se traslada al dÃ a 29. (If April 30th falls on a Sunday, the festival is moved to the 29th.) Using Caer To Indicate Compatibility Caer can be used with an indirect-object pronoun to suggest the idea of to get along with or to be OK with. The translation varies with context; often, a translation of to like or dislike will do. Me caen bien tus amigos. (I like your friends. Or, I get along with your friends.)Esto no va a caer muy bien a los otros equipos. (The other teams arent going to be pleased with this.)No me cayÃ ³ bien la decisiÃ ³n. (I didnt like the decision. Or, the decision wasnt fine with me.)Ese desodorante le cae mal a mi piel. (That deodorant bothers my skin.)Ã ¿Que profesores te caÃ an mejor? (Which teachers did you like best?)Me cayÃ ³ mal la comida. (The meal disagreed with me.) Conjugation of Caer Caer is conjugated irregularly. Irregular forms are shown in boldface below. Translations given are those most commonly used. Gerund:: cayendo (falling) Past participle: caÃ do (fallen) Present indicative:Ã caigo, tÃ º caes, el/ella/usted cae, nosotros/nosotras caemos, vosotros/vosotras caÃ ©is, ellos/ellas/ustedes caen (I fall, you fall, he/she falls, etc.) Preterite: yo caÃ , tÃ º caÃ ste, el/ella/usted cayÃ ³, nosotros/nosotras caÃ mos, vosotros/vosotras caÃ steis, ellos/ellas/ustedes cayeron (I fell, you fell, etc.) Present subjunctive: que caiga, que tÃ º caigas, que el/ella/usted caiga, que nosotros/nosotras caigamos, que vosotros/vosotras cagÃ ¡is, que ellos/ellas/ustedes caigan (that I fall, that you fall, etc.) Imperfect subjunctive: que yo cayera/cayese, que tÃ º cayeras/cayeses, que el/ella/usted cayera/cayese, que nosotros/nosotras cayÃ ©ramos/cayÃ ©semos, que vosotros/vosotras cayerais/cayeseis, que ellos/ellas/ustedes cayeran/cayesen (that I fell, that you fell, etc.) Affirmative imperative: cae tÃ º, caiga usted, caigamos nosotros, caed vosotros/vosotras, caigan ustedes (you fall, you fall, let us fall, etc.) Negative imperative: no caigas tÃ º, no caiga usted, no caigamos nosotros/nosotras, no cagÃ ¡is vosotros/vosotras, no caigan ustedes (dont you fall, dont you fall, let us fall, etc.) Using the Past Participle of Caer as a Noun When used as a noun, the past participle of caer has several specific uses: CaÃ do or caÃ da can refer to someone who has died for a cause, especially in combat: Tengo mucho respeto para los veteranos por su valor militar y para todos los caÃ dos de la guerra. (I have much respect for vererans for their military valor and for all the wars fallen.)CaÃ da can refer to the dropping or falling of something: La caÃ da de piedras en la carretera causÃ ³ su cierre en ambos sentidos. (The rockfall on the highway caused its closure in both directions.)CaÃ da can similarly refer to a loss in value, such as a price drop: El Banco Central anunciÃ ³ la inyecciÃ ³n de 4.000 millones de dÃ ³lares para frenar caÃ da del peso. (The Central Bank announced the injection of $4 billion dollars to stop the pesos slide.) Key Takeaways Caer is a common Spanish verb that is usually the equivalent of to fall in its major uses.Depending on the context, caer or the noun form caÃ do can also be used to refer dying or those who have died, respectively.Caer is highly irregular in its conjugation.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Going global and being known as a successful international corporate is an impressive achievement that almost all companies aim to attain. To successfully convert a business from domestic to international, a firm will need to consider a new set of factors that might not necessarily affect a local-only company. Companies use a number of tactics to achieve their global expansion plans, including exporting goods, forming strategic partnerships, licensing, acquiring businesses and building new facilities in multiple countries. Often, a company may need to try out few strategies in order to find the perfect fit. Many global expansion failures results from companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ temptation/decision to apply their domestic management approach to global operations. Grolsch, like other companies, encountered many impasses during their international expansions. Nonetheless, much can be learned from Grolsch, successes and failures. Ã¯â § GrolschÃ¢â¬â¢s global strategy is based on the MABA process that is described in the case. What is your opinion of the MABA process? While there are great potentials in exploring new opportunities overseas, there can also be considerable risks associated in doing business in an unfamiliar environment. Companies need a comprehensive approach to assess the benefits and potential pitfalls in going global. Grolsch does so through its MABA (Market Attractiveness, Business Assessment) framework. The MABA, as described in the case, is used by GrolschÃ¢â¬â¢s employees to judge theShow MoreRelatedHyundai1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhere it is now on the global market. We will then go into the specific strategies employed by Hyundai to make it a global competitor. We will then follow with a particular issue that Hyundai faces and the solution we feel best addresses that issue. 2. 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McIntosh MG 495 Strategic Management - Winter 2014 City University of Seattle Abstract Heineken begins it story as a company in 1864 when its founder, Gerard Adrian Heineken purchased a small brewery in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Since that time, multiple Read MoreGlobalization : A Global Organization1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Global Presence Requires a Global Mindset If a business has a great product or service; why would it not share that product or service with the world? Business leaders in the business world of today are feeling the push to go global. There has been a huge increase in the size of the global market over the past 20 years and the only alternative CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s have had are to get on board or get left behind (Govindarajan, 1998). 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That means that there is a necessity of a corporate culture which enables a organization to adapt and integrate into the culture in which there will be operated. It is clear that Heineken has such a culture. Heineken sees itself as an integral part of the societies they are operating in. A lot of value isRead MoreErnst And Young : Ernst Young Llp Essay1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof Ernst Young LLP, is an international professional provisions company and is based in London. It is the largest in terms of profit compared to the rest of the big four and the third largest professional firm in the world by income as well. This was for the year of 2014, nevertheless one can understand the economic scale of this accounting firm. . Ernst Young has the biggest international presence compared to the rest of the big four. As a result they set a global standard, due to their supposeRead MoreGlobalization Has Brought An Era Of Rapid Industrialisation And Modernisation1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction: Globalisation is a leading concept which has become a major contributor for businesses to become international. Going cross-border has opened up so many opportunities for many emerging economies which in turn has increased the economic growth of those countries by manifolds. Globalisation has brought an era of rapid industrialisation and modernisation by giving organisations access to new ideas, technology, specialised skills and foreign investment. Globalisation gives a different perspectiveRead MoreThe Negative Impact of Multinational Corporations on Lesser-Developed Countries (LDCs)1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimpact on the world through human rights violations, through their control of the media, and by putting smaller local companies out of business. Corporations are often major violators of human rights. 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Mental illnesses have been recognized and acknowledged for thousands of years, but the way they had once been treated and handled differ from the way they are dealt with today. There was a point in time where all mental illnesses were thought of as one and they were treated in a similar way. Many theories were associated with the cause of these mental disorders and many of them today are deemed as obnoxious. Emil Kraeplin, a German physician was one of the first to categorize mental disorders and he used the term dementia praecox for individuals who had symptoms that we now associate with schizophrenia. Since then our understanding of this mental illness has evolved even though the causes of this illness to this day remain hard to comprehend. (Weiner, 1997) Schizophrenia usually strikes in late adolescence or in early adulthood. In some cases it can affect a person in middle age or even later and in rare cases it affects children. In general, the earlier this disease onsets, the more severe it gets as time goes by. Usually, the onset of this illness is gradual with subtle warning signs, but sometimes symptoms can appear all of a sudden and without warning. In initial phases people suffering from schizophrenia seem disconnected and isolated, emotionless, eccentric and reclusive. They begin to show an indifference to life and they stop caring about the way they appear. They stop doing things they once liked doing and the quality of work at school or work starts toShow MoreRelatedPsychosis, Paranoia And Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Essay1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe world is being affected by the psychological disorder Schizophrenia every day. The disease itself can be traced back to the second millennium before Christ. Schizophrenia c an be diagnosis using Dr. Eugen Bleuler Ã¢â¬Å"positiveÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"negativeÃ¢â¬ symptoms. 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Question: Discuss about theMarketing and Entrepreneurship in Mars Australia. Answer: Introduction Urbonaviius and Dikius (2008) explains marketing as a process under which enterprises after identifying customers requirements, produce or modify their items in order to have competitive edge against different other players. When an entity comes up with new services or items marketing activities like defining the target segment and deciding accurate strategies for 4Ps becomes highly important (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2007). In reference of Shahhosseini (2011) marketing strategies implemented by entities are similar however Kaplan and Haenlein (2009) argues it to be varying based on various factors related with nature of product and personality of target consumers. The purpose of doing this report is to discuss a market plan regarding a new product being launched by Mars Australia. Based on new product, target segment will be categorized and appropriate strategies related with marketing will be discussed in the report. Company Background and Product Description Mars, a global enterprise, has segregated its offerings into six businesses; chocolates, pet care, Wrigley Gum and Confections, nutrients and drink that assists the company to earn nearly $30 billion USD in a year (Mars Incorporated, 2011). The family-based enterprise works as per five principles of creating quality, being responsible, generating mutuality, efficiency and freedom where the entity through superior performance and continuous communication regarding its commitment has created strong brand image among people (Mars Incorporated, 2011). Mars entered Australia in 1954 initially for selling its chocolate bars however currently company operations have extended marvellously with six production sites throughout the region (Mars Incorporated, 2011). The company offers employment to nearly 2,000 people and is among the leading entities of Australian consumer brands where in spite of manufacturing its majority of sales in the country it exports them to almost 30 other countries al l over the globe (Mars Incorporated, 2011). The company has come up with a new product variant of MM in Australia with special yellow and brown packaging banana flavour (Australian Food News, 2016). Mars launched MM in 1980s and after then have introduced several innovative and different varieties like Pink White in 2011 to spread awareness regarding breast cancer among people (Australian Food News, 2016). As per Nielsen, Australian confectionary sugar grocery segment is held by number of strong brand where MM have market share of 10.2%, Nestls Allens with 19.6%, Natural Confectionary Company 14.2%, Pascall with 11%, Starburst 7.6%, Cadbury 2.2%, Skittles 0.9% and Kit-Kat 0.1% (Australian Food News, 2016). Target Market Martin (2011) has identified market segmentation depending on various factors like demographic dimensions as efficient means to serve the varying requirements of people. Selecting and defining the target market for items being offered assist the entities to create strategies that create desires among people to buy the product (Fejza and Asllani, 2013; Daft, 2011). MMs candies are colourful, uniform and sweet candy chocolates where Mars often introduce new flavours to attract and retain its current customers. Target segment for banana flavour candy can be categorised as per demographics and behavioural factors under which elements like age, income and user status are analysed. Table 1 and 2 illustrates the demographic and behavioural segmentation of MMs new banana flavour candy. Table 1: Demographic Segmentation Basis Description Gender Male and Female Age 5-30 years Income Middle level Income Group Family Size Single, Married, people having kids (Source: Authors Creation) Table 2: Behavioural Segmentation Basis Description User Status Buys chocolates or candies at least once a month Occasions Birthdays, Festivals and for Special moments on Valentines or Friendship day. (Source: Authors Creation) The target segment for the new banana flavoured MM is going to be children, men and women. However, the focus of marketers must be mostly to teenage girls and children who are generally very fond of eating candies. For having better sales in families and children, the enterprise will have to target married women who are decision-makers of buying food items and could encourage word-of-mouth for the item Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson (2007) explains word-of-mouth as an efficient strategy for increasing sales of items when people refer their acquaintances for the items being good in Quality. As per research, Mars MMs earlier flavours like orange candy were highly encouraged by the consumers for its taste and quality which can beneficial for the firm currently as well for promoting banana flavours (Mars Incorporated, 2011). Behavioural segmentation covers special occasions like Halloween, Christmas, Easter or Valentines Day where people love to share sweets to their loved ones. Additionally, user status for instance how many times in a week or month people buy similar items could be utilised by marketers to create demand for banana candy. User status of an item makes the firm understand the preference and attitude towards the product based on which assumptions for future purchases could be made by marketers (Pour, Nazari and Emami, 2013). For MMs banana candy, people who love to buy chocolates for at least once a month is going to be targeted. Nevertheless, couples and friends could also be targeted by Mars for these new candies where they could be convinced to buy it on regular basis for sharing their feelings. Marketing Strategy Companies for promoting its new offerings use innovative strategies under which effective means for creating interest for items are generated through Marketing Mix (Pour, Nazari and Emami, 2013). It includes combination of factors like Product (essential features), Price (value), Place (availability) and Promotion (communication) linked with item to promote awareness among target consumers (Singh, 2012). Goi, (2009) claims marketing mix as a conceptual framework under which decision-making abilities of marketers are identified with respect to how well they could configure the offerings in accordance with requirements of people. On the other hand, Purnomo, Lee and Soekartawi (2010) considers Marketing mix as powerful strategic mechanism to differentiate the items against those already available in the target segment. However, Shahhosseini (2011) argues the concept of marketing mix as inefficient mechanism where only production-orientation has been used to determine the effective strat egies for increasing the sales of the item. Apart from ignoring customer-orientation in marketing mix, some researchers also argued the concept for not being used for relationship building as means to have awareness among target consumers. Nevertheless, McCarthys 4Ps Marketing Mix has been found to be an efficient technique to spread awareness of new offerings among people with appropriate pricing and promotion strategies (Nuseir and Madanat, 2015). The marketing strategy for MMs banana candies are as follows: Product The first feature of marketing mix is product where marketers must clearly identify the distinct features of the item against competitor that helps it to survive in the market with strong performance (Rotfeld, 2014). MMs candies are durable, unique and instantly noticeable with letter M printed on chocolates. Under hard coating of shell of these candies, different flavours are filled which helps the marketers to preserve these candies under diverse temperatures and is suitable for carrying for long journeys (Rotfeld, 2014). However, for the new candies, bananas mixed with chocolate flavour texturing and crunch of crisp will be used that will instantly melt at mouth making it irresistible and good at taste. Packaging of these candies will be innovative with special themes like fun (cartoon), festive or love for drawing the attention of children, families and friends respectively. They will be available at sizes ranging from mini, mega and M-azing (candy bar version) with different pri ce range that will allow its target consumers to buy the product as per their suitability. Price Price of items can be explained as monetary amount that a person pays to benefit from value being offered by marketers in the form of product (Rotfeld, 2014). Pricing of items could be fixed under categories of skimming, penetration or competition-based where under the first the marketers fixes high price for the items and after creating its awareness in the market lowers the values (Singh, 2012). In case of penetration, producers uses low price for entering the target market and after then fixes high value for the item while competitive-based pricing enterprises decides the price of items based on competitors strategies (Singh, 2012). Australian sweet segment includes different players ranging from Nestls Allens, Natural Confectionary Company, Pascall, Starburst, Cadbury and Skittles where Mars requires setting its new candy prices according to competition (Australian Food News, 2016). Competitive pricing will allow the firms to have strong market demand where people would be able t o compare banana candys quality and taste against other similar chocolates. Table 3 illustrates the pricing of banana candies based on different sizes of candies Table 3: Pricing for new MM's Banana Candies Package Price Mini $7 Mega $15 M-azing $27 (Source: Authors Creation) Promotion Promotion includes integrated marketing campaigns under which marketers utilises several means like print and digital platforms to inform people basic advantages of using the item (Shahhosseini, 2011). Without use of effective promotional measures marketers will never be able to have successful launching of new items as people unawareness regarding the product will result in reduced sales and failure (Shahhosseini, 2011). In order to have strong performance in the market for MMs banana flavour advertising campaigns could be undertaken by the company through television commercials, magazines advertising and promotion through online social mediums like Facebook and shopping websites like eBay. Social media has become important platform to inform people regarding the new offerings where entities can create separate page, communities or could introduce contests for attracting the attention of people (Neti, 2011). Apart from social medium, the company can utilise promotional activities in malls where participants will be encouraged to take part in small events and would be gifted with candies on winning. For increasing the demand for the item among children, schools and parks could be approached where they could be given banana candies for free. On the other hand, for retail stores promotion, sampling (free testing) and bundled offers must be implemented by the company where people will be able to have different range of products offered by Mars along with banana candies within low price. Place Kaplan and Haenlein (2009) has identified place as the most influential feature to create awareness and loyalty among target segment as non-availability of items could result in dissatisfaction and loss of consumers base. Consumers generally use retail stores and online medium to buy products therefore MMs marketers must implement strong distribution channel where most visited stores, malls and websites for shopping have stock of banana flavoured candies. Moreover, the companys own websites must create separate offers and column related it new candy to improve the convenience level of consumers while having purchasing decisions. Additionally, medical or small stores could also be targeted for placing MMs banana candies where people could be given it as free samples which can help the firm to generate awareness and loyalty among consumers. Conclusion and Recommendations Marketing strategies assists the companies to create awareness for their offerings which often results in generating loyalty and competitive edge among the target consumers. Companies products differs based on features, benefits and categories that requires marketers to come up with efficient decision-making ability for targeting, segmenting and positioning (marketing mix) people for the items. The report selected Mars Australia as company that recently is going to launch new banana flavour under MM candy category. The first section offered the purpose of doing this report and highlighted general background for company and its new item. The second section discussed the targeting and segmentation of the product based on demographic and behavioural aspects. Marketing strategy covered the four essential elements of mix; product, price, place and promotion where different strategies have been suggested to improve the product awareness and sales. The pricing strategy selected for banana c andy is competitive-based and for promoting the item efficiently among people sampling, bundled offers and online platforms are going to be used. Australian candy segment includes string competitors like Nestls Allens with 19.6% market share for which Mars must design proper strategies to attract the consumers for its offerings. In order to have superior performance for MMs banana candies it is essential for marketers to follow integrated approach for determining effective strategies related with product. Reference List Australian Food News. (2016). Mars launches banana flavored MMs into Australia. Sentius [onine] A.p1. Available at: https://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2015/08/31/mars-launches-banana-flavoured-mms-into-australia.html [Accessed 20 Sept. 2016]. Daft, R.L. (2011). Management. London: Cengage Learning. Fejza, E. and Asllani, A. (2013). The Importance of Marketing in Helping Companies With Their Growth Strategies: The Case Of Food Industry In Kosovo. European Scientific Journal June, 9(16), pp. 326-335. Goi, C.L. (2009). A Review of Marketing Mix: 4Ps or More? International Journal for marketing studies, 1(1), pp. 2-15. Hitt, M., Ireland, R.D. and Hoskisson, R. (2007). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. 7 th Edition. London: Cengage Learning. Kaplan, A.M. and Haenlein, M. (2009). The increasing importance of public marketing: Explanations, applications and limits of marketing within public administration. European Management Journal 27, pp.197 212. Mars Incorporated. (2011). A Global Company with Family Values. Mars [online] Available at: https://www.marsgraduates.com.au/globalcompany.aspx [Accessed 20 Sept. 2016]. Martin, G. (2011). The Importance of Marketing Segmentation. American Journal of Business Education, 4(6), pp. 15-18. Neti, S. (2011). Social Media and Its Role In Marketing. International Journal of Enterprise Computing and Business System, 1(2), pp. 1-16. Nuseir, M.T. and Madanat, H. (2015). 4Ps: A Strategy to Secure Customers Loyalty via Customer Satisfaction. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 7(4), pp. 78-87. Pour, B.S. Nazari, K. and Emami, M. (2013). The effect of marketing mix in attracting customers: Case study of Saderat Bank in Kermanshah Province. African Journal of Business Management, 7(64), pp. 3272-3280 Purnomo, S.H., Lee, Y. and Soekartawi. (2010). Why is understanding customer attitude toward 4Ps marketing mix important? The case of the livestock input industry in Indonesia. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 2(4), pp. 107-114. Rotfeld, H.J. (2014). The pragmatic importance of theory for marketing practice. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31(4), pp. 322-327. Shahhosseini, A. (2011). Marketing Mix Practices in the Cultural Industry. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(8), pp. 230-234. Singh, M. (2012). Marketing Mix of 4PS for Competitive Advantage. Journal of Business and Management, 3(6), pp. 40-45. Urbonaviius, S. and Dikius, V. (2008). Importance of Marketing Activities In A Company: The Management Perspective. Ekonomika, 1, pp.41-50.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Key legislation and policy development with regard to people with disabilities Page 3 Analyse of society has changed in Ireland in relation to how it treats people with disabilities by reference to legislation social policy Page 4 Analyse the factors and ideologies that influenced the key themes in the Disability Act 2005. Page 5 Evaluate how the Disability Act 2005 is implemented by organisations and practitioners dealing with education. Page 7 Conclusion Page 8 Introduction. Ã¢â¬Å"Within the past few decades there has been greater awareness of and concern with the rights of persons with disabilitiesÃ¢â¬ ¦ This has been accompanied by an increasing emphasis on the rights of such persons and an emphasis on mainstreaming services. Ã¢â¬ Curry (2011) pg. 206 Disability has come a long way in terms of legislation over the past 4 centuries, in this assignment I will look at how our society has changed the way it treats people with disabilities and if our legislation has gotten better or worse. I will also look at and analyse the factors and ideologies that made up the key themes in the Disability Act 2005. Lastly I will evaluate how this Act is implemented by organisations and practitioners dealing with education. Key legislation and policy development with regard to people with disabilities. 16th century Brehon Laws 17th18th century Penal Laws 1945 Mental Treatment Act 1960 Problem of the Mentally Handicapped 1965 Report of the Commission of inquiry on Mental Handicap 1985 The Green Paper on Services for Disabled People, Towards a Full Life 1991 Needs and Abilities: A policy for the Intellectually Disabled 1992 Green Paper on Mental Health 1996 Report of the commission on the Status of People with Disabilities: A Strategy for Equality 1998 Education Act 1998 Employment Equality Act 1999 Establishment of the National Educational Psychological Service 2000 Establishment of the National Disability Authority 2000 Equal status Act 2001 Mental Health Act 2002 Establishment of the Mental Health Commission 2004 Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs (EPSEN) Act 2004 National Disability Strategy 2005 Disability Act 1. Analyse how Society has changed in Ireland in relation to how it treats people with disability. If looking at the older legislation in Ireland such as the Brehon laws and the Penal laws, it looks as if Ireland goes backwards instead of forward. In the Brehon laws they had heavy fines imposed on those who mocked the disabled, in this time they seen people who were disabled, the same as everyone else and they had the same rights. When moving on to look at the Penal laws there is a dramatic change in the way disability was treated, they treated disability as something that was untreatable and many patients were left in ward to die. When the Lunacy Act of 1890 was introduced it caused terrible things for people with disability. Before the advent of drugs people that were deemed mentally ill were housed in asylums. They often contained hundreds of patients ranging from people who may have disagreed with powerful members of a family, disabled people, people suffering from depression, full blown psychotics, attempted suicides, children and the elderly all thrown in together. If people with disabilities werenÃ¢â¬â¢t put into an asylum they were then thrown into the workhouses, the only problem with this is that the medical staff in the workhouses didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to deal with patients with disabilities so most of the time they were left in a back ward and forgotten about. There was a long period where no new laws were introduced in terms of disability, after the penal laws the next laws introduced were the mental treatment act in 1945 which defined what mental health is and split it from disability. After that the laws started to pick up as in 1960 the white paper, The Problem of the Mentally Handicapped was publicised, outlining the several aspects of the problem and the progress which has been made in regard to it. Then in 1965 the report of the commission of inquiry on mental handicap was introduced, it recommended that additional special school day places for children were created and an increase of residential places. The Problem with the paper is that it did not challenge the segregation of those children with intellectual disabilities. Joining the EU in 1973 had a big influence on the legislation put forward in the years following as the Irish government seen the legislation around disability in other countries and the EU seen it necessary that up to date legislation was put in place, joining the EU had a massive impact on legislation being revolutionised. Over ten years later in 1984 the green paper on Services for Disabled People, Towards a Full Life was realised, as mentioned by ConsidineDukelow this showed a broadening perspective on issues around disability, reference was made on the need to improve public transport and buildings to help those with a disability to have fuller participation and inclusion in society. In the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s legislation and policy really started to grow in terms of disability, like the Commission on the Status of People with Disabilities: a Strategy for Equality in 1996. According to ConsidineDukelow the big change came from international recognition that disability is more of a social inability rather than a medical one, the change to a more social model according to Carson is that disability is understood as an unequal relationship within a society where the needs of people with disabilities are often given little or no consideration. People with impairments are disabled by the fact that they are excluded from the mainstream of society as a result of physical, organisational and attitudinal barriers. Once this was taken into notice the Irish government started changing the laws and policies around disability and somewhat around mental health also, this can be seen when looking at the box provided above, there are little changes in legislation up until 1991 but it is clear that in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s a huge revamp of disability legislation and policy had taken place. This Ã¢â¬ËrevampÃ¢â¬â¢ of our policies and legislations can still be seen coming into the 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s as some very important things happened for disability in the past 10/11 years. The introduction of the Equal Status Act had a huge effect on many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives as it gave those with disability the chance to go to court if they feel they may have been discriminated against by an employer, service etc. This gave those with impairments a feeling of independence and a sense of self-worth as it was then illegal for someone to discriminate against them. EPSEN was another extremely important Act that was introduced in 2004 which was put in place so that children would be assessed if a parent/teacher/principle thought it was needed. The most shocking bill in these years was the National Disability Strategy, the reason this shock many people (mainly advocacy groups) was that it was so badly put together, and when it was looked over many advocacy groups took a stand and told the government that it was not substantial for the needs of those with impairments and that it needed to be reviewed. From this the Disability Act 2005 was produced, it came from the reviewed and fixed National Disability Strategy. 2. Analyse the Factors and Ideologies that influenced the key themes in the Disability Act 2005. Ã¢â¬Å"Under the Act, the term Ã¢â¬ËDisabilityÃ¢â¬â¢, in relation to a person, means a substantial restriction in the capacity of the person to carry out a profession, business or occupation in the State or to participate in social or cultural life in the State by reason of an enduring physical, sensory, mental health or intellectual impairment. Ã¢â¬ Ahead (2014) webpage As mentioned in task one the Disability Act had come from a prior proposed National Disability Strategy which got refused by advocacy groups for not meeting the needs of those with impairments. In the Disability Act 2005 there were 7 key themes mentioned by Inclusion Ireland which are: Allow for an assessment of needs of people with disabilities and a service statement-A person may apply for an assessment if they think they have a disability. The hope of the assessment is to establish the personÃ¢â¬â¢s health and educational needs and the services the person would need to meet their needs. Improved access to public buildings, services and information- An obligation was placed on all pubic bodies to make their buildings and services accessible to people with disabilities. However there was an exception if these changes changed the nature of the business or if it had risk to the health of any person Ensure that certain Government Departments brought out sectoral plans outlining what improvements that department would take-This involved Departments producing plans on codes of practice or regulations, complaints procedures, monitoring and review procedures, level of access to services outlined in the plan. Place an obligation on public bodies to be pro-active in employing people with disabilities-An obligation was placed on all public bodies to promote and support the employment of people with disabilities, at least 3% of their workforce is to be disabled. Restrict the use of information from genetic testing for employment ,mortgage and insurance purposes-The act makes sure people do not process genetic data in relation to employment, insurance policies, health insurance or mortgages. Establish a Centre for Excellence in Universal Design. The Centre would be charged with developing best practice guidance on how to design, build and manage buildings and spaces so that they can be readily accessed and used by everyone. Miscellaneous-The Commission shall make rules requiring each broadcaster to take specific steps to promote the understanding and enjoyment by the deaf/persons with hearing impairment, persons who are blind/partially sighted of programmes transmitted on any broadcasting service provided by him/her. I will analyse and look at the themes of assessment of needs and access to buildings in more depth. Assessment: Under the act people have the right to apply for an assessment of needs if they feel they are disabled, in getting this assessment the hope is to find out the personÃ¢â¬â¢s health and educational needs and what services they should avail of to meet their needs. An assessment officer will carry out the assessments and once this is completed the person should receive and assessment report which will inform them if they have a disability, the nature of the disability, the needs due to the disability, the services ideal for meeting those needs and how often they should be used, when a review of the assessment should be taken. After a person has gotten their assessment report they will get a service statement which will indicate to them what services can be provided for their needs, this is one of the downfalls in the act as you are told in your assessment report what services you need but the state doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to supply them services if there is another service which is Ã¢â¬ËadequateÃ¢â¬â¢. This stops people getting the services they need because it costs less for the state, this is the big difference between the service statement and the assessment report as the service statement takes into account cost which in the economic downturn plays a major part in people getting the right/wrong services. A person may also take a complaint to health board if, according to Ahead, it was found during the assessment that the person doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a disability, the assessment was not carried out with the standards set by the Health Information and Quality Authority, they are not satisfied with the service statement and/or if a service was not provided as specified in the service statement. A person may also appeal against a finding/recommendation of the complaints officer, failure of a service provider to carry out the recommendations. Accessibility: In the Disability Act 2005 it states that Ã¢â¬Å"a public body shall ensure that its public buildings are, as far as practicable, accessible to persons with disabilities. Ã¢â¬ Irish Statute Book (webpage). The major problem with this part of the act is that only public bodies are mentioned to be accessible, which means only public bodies have to make themselves accessible rather than all. There is an exception to this if it would change the nature of a business or if it would put any personÃ¢â¬â¢s health or safety at risk, if it would not be practicable, if it is not justified by the cost involved and/or causes unreasonable delay in making goods/services available to others. Also many Georgian houses in Dublin have not been made accessible due to their historical architecture. A person or someone on their behalf can make a complaint if the public building/goods are not accessible to a person with a disability. Certain Government ministers are required to produce sectoral plans informing them of codes of practice/legislation, complaints procedure, monitoring and review procedure and the level of access services outlined. As mentioned by Ahead the departments that produced sectoral plans were: Health, Social Welfare, Transport, Communications, Marine and Natural resources, Enviroment, Heritage and Local Government and Enterprise, Trade and Employment. It can be seen all across the country that places are becoming more accessible for those with disabilities, night clubs are becoming more accessible, restaurants, hotels etc. But there is still many places that have ticked the boxes with the Government but not humanely. For instance the Hilton hotel in Kilmainham does have a ramp which would bring someone in a wheelchair into the hotel but that ramp is the same ramp for cars to get into the car park, it is terrible to think if someone who was in a wheelchair wanted to stay there they would have to use the ramp into the car park to get inside. It would not have cost an unjustifiable amount to put a wheelchair ramp at the front door of the hotel. 3. Evaluate how the Disability Act 2005 is implemented by organisations and practitioners dealing with education. The disability act 2005 does not deal with Education to a huge extent but it is dealt with in the case of assessment, a person is assessed under the fact of their health and educational needs, they may be assessed under the Disability act or the EPSEN act (Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs Act 2004) but if they are assessed under the Disability Act and are found to have a special educational need their assessment if referred to the National Council for Special Education or the Principle of the school. The accessibility part of the Disability Act 2005 also comes in to play for schools, where public schools must be accessible for those with disabilities, but it is not the law that private school/buildings have to be accessible but in saying that many are. The accessibility is not just being able to get into the school/college by ramps etc. it also means having bathrooms for people with disabilities and possibly door handles being lower for those in wheelchairs and small things like that which make school life more integrated for those with an impairment. Many colleges/Universities which are older can be found difficult to access by people with disabilities and this may play a huge part in their education as they may not be able to attend certain colleges and/or do the course they want to. All this shows that the social model is right in saying that society disabled people rather than their impairment because due to certain things in society a person with a disability canÃ¢â¬â¢t take part in some things due to society blocking them from doing it. The change in the Disability Act 2005 has made a big change to many people with disabilities lives as many children can now go to mainstream schools due to the accessibility or the fact of SNAÃ¢â¬â¢s being in schools now. The introduction of SNAÃ¢â¬â¢s changed many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives as it made it easier for children to attend school and learn as they needed. The one problem to do with SNAÃ¢â¬â¢s is the cutbacks that have been put towards in that area, there is not enough money left to keep one or even any SNA teachers in some schools and even when they are still in place their hours have been cut which will affect the children they are working with. With the cuts the Government are taking from the most vulnerable as Hayes said Ã¢â¬Å"is it not morally indefensible that the current government stands over the abolition of SNAs to the most vulnerable children in Irish educationÃ¢â¬ (webpage) The EPSEN act is a much bigger influence towards Education than the Disability Act as it looks directly at education for those who need special education. A principle, teacher or parent can put the child up for assessment under the EPSEN act, this assessment is to be carried out within 3 months of the principle forming an opinion that the child may need special education. The assessment through EPSEN is quite similar to the one done through the Disability Act but rather it is just to do with educational needs. If a child is seen to have a special educational need the council will prepare an educational plan for that child so that they can partake in school and achieve their best, this type of plan is good due to the fact it is written up specifically for that child and their educational needs. Conclusion: It can be seen through what I have mentioned throughout this assignment that there has been a huge change in many different areas involved in disabilities legislation including the different model now used- use of social model over medical, the difference of how society treats people with a disability now in terms of legislation and the legislations that have been put forward over the past couple of years to give support and help to those who have impairments. The change has been only for the good of those with a disability and has integrated them into our society so now there is less of a split between what used to be called Ã¢â¬ËdisabledÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ënon-disabledÃ¢â¬â¢.